Glossary for the animal by-product processing sector

Anaerobic digestion (AD) / Biogas plant -A sequence of processes whereby microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste or to produce biogas fuel. Biogas, approximately 60% methane and 40% CO2 is mainly used to generate electricity for local use and for feeding into the electricity grid.

Animal-based food chain - A supply chain includes all physical steps involved in the production of a particular output for consumers. The value chain approach provides a more comprehensive perspective and includes all activities and interests of different actors along the supply chain. The structure of the animal-based food value chain accommodates different stages that lead to the final product, which is then delivered to the consumer.

Animal by product - any part of an animal carcass, or any material of animal origin, not intended for human consumption. All products of animal origin would be considered to be animal by-product if they were not intended for human consumption.  Much of the carcass of an animal slaughtered for human consumption will be despatched for human consumption, but some parts will not be. This is not necessarily because they are not fit for human consumption; it may simply be that there is no market for them. So, for example, in parts of Europe where cow tongues are considered a delicacy that part of a cow carcass may be considered as meat. In parts of Europe where there is no market for cow tongues they will be animal by-product. Animal products become animal by-products as soon as it is decided that they will not be used for human consumption.

Bio-security - PAP is only made from by-products of animals which are fit for human consumption at the point of slaughter, and is manufactured in dedicated processing plants to prevent intra-species recycling. Processing sites are licensed by the competent authorities in each EU member state, co-ordinated by the EU Commission.  The highest standards of safety, hygiene and traceability are mandatory, and comprehensive labelling and testing programmes are in place to govern its use.

Circular bioeconomy - An economy in which renewable biological resources and their residues are produced and converted into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy for re-use in the supply chain.

Carbon footprint - The carbon footprint of a process or product is calculated in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted in the course of the manufacture process. Products such as rendered animal fat are said to be carbon neutral as they are derived from current biological life. Using the carbon neutral rendered animal fat as a fuel source in the rendering process ensures that the fossil fuel requirement is lower thus lowering the overall carbon footprint.

Categorisation (by-products) - The separation of different types (categories) of animal by-products according to the risk to human or animal health. The Categories define by the EU are;

Category 3 - Parts of slaughtered animals which are fit for human consumption but are not intended for human consumption for commercial reasons; parts of slaughtered animals which are rejected as unfit for human consumption but are not affected by any sign of a communicable disease; hides and skins, hooves and horns, pig bristles and feathers originating from animals that are slaughtered in a slaughterhouse and were declared fit for human consumption after undergoing an ante mortem inspection; blood obtained from animals declared fit for human consumption after undergoing an ante mortem inspection, other than ruminants slaughtered in a slaughterhouse; animal by-products derived from the production of products intended for human consumption, including degreased bones and greaves; former foodstuffs of animal origin, other than catering waste, which are no longer intended for human consumption for commercial reasons or due to problems of manufacturing or packaging defects; raw milk originating from animals that do not show any signs of a communicable disease; fish or other sea animals, except sea mammals, caught in the open sea for the purpose of fishmeal production, and fresh by-products from fish from plants manufacturing fish products for human consumption; shells of eggs originating from animals that do not show any signs of a communicable disease; blood, hides and skins, hooves, feathers, wool, horns, hair and fur originating from healthy animals; catering waste other than category 1.

Category 2 - manure and digestive tract content; all animal materials other than those belonging to category 1 collected when treating waste water from slaughterhouses; products of animal origin containing residues of veterinary drugs and contaminants in concentrations exceeding the Community limits; products of animal origin, other than category 1 material, that are imported from third countries and fail to comply with the Community veterinary requirements; animals other than category 1 that have not been slaughtered for human consumption; mixtures of category 2 and category 3 material.

Category 1 - Category 1 material comprises the following animal by-products: all body parts body, including hides and skins, of animals suspected of being infected by a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or in which the presence of a TSE has been confirmed, animals killed in the context of TSE eradication measures, pet animals, zoo animals and circus animals, experimental animals, wild animals suspected of being infected with a communicable disease; specified risk material as tissues likely to carry an infectious agent; products derived from animals that have absorbed prohibited substances or substances containing products dangerous for the environment; all animal material collected when treating waste water from category 1 processing plants and other premises in which specified risk material is removed; catering waste from means of transport operating internationally;  mixtures of category 1 with category 2 and/or category 3 material.

Meat and bone meal - A by-product of the human food chain processed from category 1 and 2 by-products of meat production, used as a source of green energy and as fertiliser, and supplied to the construction industry.

The EU Commission definition of MBM is:  'meat-and-bone meal' means animal protein derived from the processing of Category 1 or Category 2 materials in accordance with one of the processing methods set out in Chapter III of Annex IV;

Edible co-product - Parts of an animal intended for human consumption but require further processing before they are fit for human consumption.

MonoPAP - monoPAP is PAP derived from animal by-products from farmed monogastric species ONLY. These species include poultry (chicken, turkey, duck) and pigs.

Nutritional value - In terms of protein value, PAP offers significantly more than feed ingredients such as rape, lupin and soya.  Unlike vegetable proteins PAP is a complete feed ingredient, delivering valuable fats and minerals to rations. Its overall contribution is similar to that of fish meal, although its environmental impact and carbon footprint is lower.

Processed Animal Protein - A high-value feed ingredient with a low carbon footprint which is manufactured from the by-products of animals that are fit for human consumption at the point of slaughter (known as category 3).

The EU Commission definition of PAP is: animal protein derived entirely from Category 3 material, which have been treated in accordance with Section 1 of Chapter II of Annex X (including blood meal and fishmeal) so as to render them suitable for direct use as feed material or for any other use in feedingstuffs, including petfood, or for use in organic fertilisers or soil improvers; however, it does not include blood products, milk, milk-based products, milk-derived products, colostrum, colostrum products, centrifuge or separator sludge, gelatine, hydrolysed proteins and dicalcium phosphate, eggs and egg-products, including eggshells, tricalcium phosphate and collagen;

QS and GMP+ - Global assurance schemes for feed safety.

Raw material selection - By products of the meat industry including - meat, bones and offal.

Rendered animal fat - Like PAP, rendered animal fat is derived from animal by-products. It is a bio-liquid which, depending upon the category of the raw material from which it is made, can be used in the production of animal feeds, biofuels, oleochemicals, pharmaceuticals and as direct replacement for heavy fuel oil and gas in steam raising boilers.

Rendering -  This is the term for the process where animal by-products are transformed into derived products by the application of heat to dehydrate, sterilize and separate the components of the animal by-products into rendered animal fat and processed proteins, PAP or meat and bone meal (according to category of animal by-products).

The process is characterized by a series of steps that each ensure that the products produced are safe, fit for purpose and nutritious. The key steps are: selection of species and category (3) of animal by-products; size reduction by mincing; application of heat to ensure correct and validated temperature profiles are met; separation of rendered fat and protein meal solids by filtration or centrifuge; refining (milling/ screening/ filtration) of the products to meet the required, quality and nutritional standards; safety checks to confirm that the microbiological standards have been met.

Supply chain channelling - The supply of specific animals (poultry or pigs) to a slaughterhouse followed by the supply of that animal by-products to a specific species animal by-products processing plant, followed by the production and onward use of monoPAP.

Tallow - Another name for rendered fat.